EU investment in China has increased dramatically since the early 1990s and is poised to increase further in light of China's recent accession to the World Trade Organisation. This book explores and critically appraises the existing legal framework governing EU-China investment relations, particularly EU investment in China. The current legal framework is composed of Chinese law, EU law and applicable international law, but the Chinese law is unsystematic and hard to discover and the EU has acquired only shared external investment competence which is vaguely defined. The applicable international treaties are incomplete, incoherent, or either too general or too specialised. Besides this, the international fora to settle investment disputes are still not readily available. Furthermore while law has played a very important role in decision-making by EU investors, the Chinese legal system is generally perceived as ineffective and lacking in effective enforcement of court and arbitration decisions. What the book demonstrates is that the time is ripe for a new international legal framework for foreign investment in China, and that as EU-China economic and political relations continue to improve, construction of such a framework is not only necessary, but also possible.
This chapter is organized as follows. The economic problem on which this book focuses is motivated in Section 1. The two tools used to study this economic problem, which are real options theory and game theory, are discussed in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Section 4 surveys the contents of this book. In Section 5 some promising extensions of the research presented in this book are listed. 1. TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT Investment expenditures of companies govern economic growth. Es- pecially investments in new and more efficient technologies are an impor- tant determinant. In particular, in the last two decades an increasing part of the investment expenditures concerns investments in informa- tion and communication technology. Kriebel, 1989 notes that (already) in 1989 roughly 50 percent of new corporate capital expenditures by major United States companies was in information and communication technology. Due to the rapid progress in these technologies, the tech- nology investment decision of the individual firm has become a very complex matter. As an example of the very high pace of technological improvement consider the market for personal computers. IBM intro- duced its Pentium personal computers in the early 1990s at the same price at which it introduced its 80286 personal computers in the 1980s. Therefore it took less than a decade to improve on the order of twenty times in terms of both speed and memory capacities, without increasing the cost (Yorukoglu, 1998).
Investment and financing decisions require the concurrent evaluation of profitability, liquidity, and risk. This book provides expertise to foster sound growth in sales and earnings within risk limits acceptable to management. It offers a unique presentation, based on the author's extensive experience in management, consulting, and teaching. Practical examples and detailed illustrations provide methods for analyzing relevant alternatives that promote clearer communications and better-informed decisions.